Research on microbial product formation involves a range of bacteria and products which display well the biotechnological possibilities of bacteria. For example, some Clostridium strains ferment carbohydrates to produce useful chemicals such as acetone but yields must be improved to make the technology economic. We are analysing sugar transport into these bacteria, both at the physiological and genetic level, with a view to increasing productivity. We also study bacteria which are toxic to the larvae of insects such as mosquitoes. These bacteria can be used in place of chemical insecticides to control these important vectors of several tropical diseases. In a collaborative project with scientists in Brazil, we developed genetically engineered strains that are highly toxic to Anopheles, the mosquito which transmits malaria.