This combined program option is a clinical specialty program that is offered in conjunction with a PhD in Craniofacial Science. The program provides to successful applicants holding a DMD degree or its equivalent, education and training for clinicians, researchers and teachers. Achievement of the Diploma in Orthodontics requires completion of the clinical and didactic requirements associated with the diploma program in the Faculty of Dentistry, successful completion of the PhD in Craniofacial Science course requirements, and successful defense and submission of the thesis to the Faculty of Graduate Studies. In this program option, the degree and the diploma are awarded conjointly and both must be completed to graduate. The combined program will require a minimum of six years to prepare the student for clinical practice and a research career. Graduates will be eligible to take the examinations for specialty certification in orthodontics offered by The Royal College of Dentists of Canada and The American Board of Orthodontics.